Have you ever taken a picture and it just didn’t look right? The colors were off, the contrast was too high or low, or the image was simply too bright or dark? Chances are, you were struggling to find middle gray. In this article, we’ll discuss what middle gray is in photography, why it matters, and how to find it. We’ll also provide some tips on how to adjust your camera settings to help you capture images with accurate color and contrast.
What Is Middle Gray In Photography?
Middle gray is the midpoint between black and white on a camera’s exposure scale. It’s also sometimes referred to as 18% gray, because that’s the reflectance value of middle gray. When an image is properly exposed, middle gray should be rendered as a neutral tone with no color cast. This is why finding middle gray is so important – if your image is too dark or too light, the colors will be affected.
Why Does Middle Gray Matter?
When you’re taking a picture, your camera’s light meter measures the amount of light reflecting off of the subject. Based on this reading, the camera calculates an exposure value that it thinks will render the scene correctly. However, the light meter isn’t always accurate. This is why finding middle gray is so important – it allows you to take control of the exposure and ensure that the image is properly exposed.
Middle Gray and Metering Modes
Your camera’s light meter will give you the best reading of middle gray if you’re using spot metering or center-weighted metering.
With these metering modes, the camera takes a reading of the light in a specific area of the frame (usually the center).
This is helpful if your subject is surrounded by a lot of light or dark areas – the camera will still be able to take an accurate reading of the light reflecting off of your subject.
The area between the two lightest grays is a good but basic target for metering since it is in the middle. If the camera can capture most of the photo to be around middle gray brightness, your image is less likely to be overexposed or underexposed. Modern metering systems offer more sophisticated options that include subject recognition and other factors, but there’s still a bias toward exposing the entire photograph toward middle gray.
In order to solve these problems, photographers can make manual changes to exposure called exposure compensation adjustments, or use an alternate metering mode. Exposure compensation allows you to manually shift the metering target so it is brighter or darker. Essentially, this means that you are changing the camera’s target for middle gray.
For example, utilizing the spot metering mode only pays attention to a limited area of the frame, typically where your focus point is. Additionally, today’s default matrix/evaluative/multi metering mode takes into consideration more sophisticated information compared to past metering modes.
Middle Gray and Setting White Balance
Another area where finding middle gray is important is when you’re setting your white balance.
White balance is the camera setting that determines how colors are rendered in an image.
If the white balance is off, colors will appear either too warm or too cool. To properly set the white balance, you’ll need to find a neutral gray area in the scene.
Point the camera at the area you want to use for white balance, and then press the shutter button halfway down to take a reading. The camera will then adjust the color balance so that middle gray is rendered as a neutral tone.
If you’re having trouble finding a neutral gray area, you can also use a white or black object.
Just make sure that the object is truly white or black – if it has any color cast, it will throw off the white balance.
How To Find Middle Gray In Your Photos
Now that you know why middle gray is so important, let’s talk about how you can find it in your photos. The easiest way to find middle gray is to use the histogram. The histogram is a graphical representation of the tones in an image. It shows you how many pixels are at each level of brightness, from black to white.
To find middle gray on the histogram, look for the point where the graph starts to curve inward. This is typically around the midpoint, which is why it’s called middle gray.
You can also use your camera’s exposure meter to find middle gray. Just point the camera at a midtone area in the scene, and then press the shutter button halfway down to take a reading.
The camera will then give you a reading of the light reflecting off of that area. If the reading is around 18%, that’s middle gray.
You can also use a basic gray card to find middle gray in your photos. There are other tools that you can purchase, such as Datacolor cards that show white, gray, and black faces, as well as a chrome ball that allows photographers to capture highlights or catchlights in their compositions.
There is also the Calibrite ColorChecker Passport, which contains a middle gray target and dedicated white balance target, as well as 24 patches of standardized colors. This will help you achieve the most accurate color reproduction possible. These additional calibration features are supported by industry standard tools like Hasselblad Phocus and Black Magic DaVinci Resolve.
Finding middle gray is an important skill for photographers to master. It allows you to properly expose your photos, as well as set the white balance. Middle gray is typically around 18% on the exposure meter, or where the histogram starts to curve inward. You can also use a gray card or other calibration tool to find middle gray in your photos.